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SEARCH 8 (2) 2016


The Traditional Tattoos of the Philippine Cordillera Region: A Study on their differences in Appearance, Causes and Discursive Strengths
* Janette P. Calimag, Reynele Bren G. Zafra, Lady Aileen G. Ambion & * F.P.A. Demeterio III

Abstract:

This paper attempts to investigate the historical culture and practice of traditional tattooing in the Philippine Cordillera region by synoptically looking at them in the context of the eight major ethnolinguistic groups in this said region, namely: 1) the Ibaloy, 2) Kankana-ey, 3) Ifugao, 4) Bontok, 5) Southern Kalinga, 6) Northern Kalinga, 7) Itneg, and 8) Isneg. This paper is premised on a hermeneutic principle that comparisons and contrasts of related phenomena would lead to insights that are otherwise missed if the study were done on a single phenomenon. By looking at the earliest ethnographic materials about tattooing among these eight ethnolinguistic groups, this paper attempts to understand their similarities and differences in appearance, causes and discursive strengths, thereby establishing a historical baseline on tattooing in the said region immediately prior to the massive influx of modern and western influences mediated by the American occupation that started in 1901. The discursive strength of the traditional tattooing of a given ethnolinguistic group is this paper’s estimation of the capacity of the given practice to withstand the said influx of modernizing and westernizing forces. This paper’s attempt to understand and document the various traditional tattooing of the Philippine Cordillera region may be construed as an initial step in safeguarding and promoting these practices as part of the region and of the country’s intangible cultural heritage. The research work undertaken for this paper was funded by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Republic of the Philippines.

Keywords: Batek, Philippine Traditional Tattoo, Cordillera Region, Ibaloy, Kankana-ey, Ifugao, Bontok, Southern Kalinga, Northern Kalinga, Itneg, Isneg

Pages: 1-18 | First Published: 1 September 2016

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SEARCH 8 (2) 2016


A Test of Technology Acceptance Model in the Use of Social Media among PR Practitioners in Nigeria
* Mukhtar El-Kasim & Syed Arabi Idid

Abstract:

Many public relations scholars believed that, the emergence of social media has accentuated the public relations practice in recent times. Social media provides public relations practitioners opportunities for creating, sharing, posting, documenting as well as interacting communication content on the net between organizations and their key public members for enhancing mutual and long-term positive relationships. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the perceived usefulness and ease of use of social media influence the behavioral intention of practitioners to use it for the enhancement of mutual relationships between with their publics. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was adopted as the theoretical guide of this study. Using self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 513 practitioners and analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results revealed that perceived usefulness (β=.251, t=4.723, p=.00) and perceived ease of use (β=.514, t=9.649, p=.000) exerted significant positive effect on the PR practitioners’ behavioral intention to accept social media for enhancing mutual relationships. Further, the results suggested that perceived ease of use had a significant indirect effect on behavioral intention through perceived usefulness. In addition, it was found that, practitioners’ perception on the ease of use of the social media was the strongest indicator for its utilization for the enhancement mutual relationships. Recommendations and limitations are further discussed.

Keywords: Social media use, public relations practitioners, perceived usefulness, perceives ease of use, behavioral intention

Pages: 19-33 | First Published: 1 September 2016

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SEARCH 8 (2) 2016


Framing Diplomatic Relations: A Comparative Analysis of Malaysian and Chinese Newspapers Coverage of Najib’s Visit to China
* Teoh Yong Chia, Yang Lai Fong & David Hock Jin NEO

Abstract:

News media play an important role in diplomacy. Hence, when dealing with diplomatic relations, a question of how these media portray the messages of their countries’ leaders is the major concerns of this study. The news coverage of Najib’s visit to China is examined comparatively across Malaysian and Chinese newspapers. By employing framing as the theoretical framework and content analysis as the research method, this study examined the framing process undertaken by the newspapers in reporting diplomatic relations. The results revealed that, although the state visit was characterized by a positive tone towards Malaysia and China that described bilateral relations, economic consequences frame was most highlighted by Malaysian newspaper, while Chinese newspaper emphasized the responsibility frame. Notably, this study found that these two newspapers were inclined to favorably portray their respective governments. The dissimilar coverage of a same issue by Malaysian and Chinese newspaper denoted a certain degree of cross-national bias reflecting its host cultural, ideological and political perspectives.

Keywords: Malaysia-China relations, framing theory, diplomacy

Pages: 34-47 | First Published: 1 September 2016

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SEARCH 8 (2) 2016


Journalism Education in Bangladesh: In Search for An Integrated Curricula Framework
* Mohammad Sahid Ullah & Rawshon Akhter

Abstract:

This article is concerned with a lack of an agreed framework for the curriculum of journalism education in Bangladesh. Starting from the want of any agreement between educators and professionals, which has hindered its journalism education as a mature discipline in Western higher education, the article argues that a lack of agreed values and beliefs about the journalism profession itself still persists in Bangladesh. Examining the existing curricula, facilities and capacities at 14 different public and private universities of Bangladesh, this article focuses on the generic problems of framing a comprehensive curriculum and the challenges ahead in the corporatization of local media industry, privatization of knowledge institutions, and new media intervention by clarifying curricular differences. It also tries to help point the way forward following basic principles of journalism curricula in Bangladesh’s context. The result also comes out from 35 interviews with media management people, senior journalists and former journalism graduates working in media houses and journalism department heads. This study finds that Bangladeshi university journalism curricula and pedagogue style cannot fulfill the demand that seeks in the media houses due to the curricula’s inadequate focus on practical courses, technological inadequacies in the university and controversy over the mission and merit of university-based journalism education.

Keywords: Journalism education, curricula framework, Bangladesh

Pages: 48-61 | First Published: 1 September 2016

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SEARCH 8 (2) 2016


The Socialization of Hijab Culture among Malaysian Media Consumers
* Nurzihan Hassim, Md Sidin Ahmad Ishak & Shahreen Mat Nayan

Abstract:

Veiling or wearing the hijab is a practice of Islamic faith. As a Muslim country, the progressive socio-political and economic landscape in Malaysia prescribed predominantly Malay women as proponents of the hijab in various communication channels. In this study, the identity of Malay-Muslim women is explored through representations of the hijab in media that create desire among media consumers to embrace a more modern yet Islamic lifestyle. The emergence of these media messages has minimal relation to piety and is sending the wrong ideals to aspiring young women. The objectives of the study were to determine: 1) the perceptions of media consumers on the hijab, 2) factors that influence their acceptance of the hijab, and 3) the relationship between Malay-Muslim women and hijab through their media use. The study interviewed media practitioners and analysed discussions on selected articles from a Malay online entertainment portal. The study found that the hijab culture is fundamental as a media commodity and as an integral element to the identity of Malay-Muslims. The significance of this exploratory study is to generate an understanding on mass media as an agent of socialization and consequently establishing that the hijab phenomenon in Malaysia has shaped a societal structure through the convergence of Islam and Malay-Muslim culture.

Keywords: Cultural identity, content analysis, hijab, consumer culture, uses and gratifications

Pages: 62-74 | First Published: 1 September 2016

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SEARCH 8 (2) 2016


Colonial Cosmopolitanism of the Peranakan World Seen in the Grave Art of Bukit Brown Cemetery
David Hock Jin NEO

Abstract:

This paper will attempt to construct and explore the colonial cosmopolitanism of the Peranakan world up to the turn of the 20th century, particularly through the material culture and aesthetics of the Straits Chinese tombs at Bukit Brown Cemetery (Singapore). The unique grave art found at Bukit Brown displays the most cosmopolitan features and influences in the Straits Settlements (Malacca, Penang and Singapore). This paper argues that the grave taste of the Straits Chinese in Singapore is a consequence and manifestation of colonial cosmopolitanism and cosmopolitan modernity, as Singapore at the turn of the 20th century, was (and still is) one of the most cosmopolitan cities of Southeast Asia. It explores and contextualizes cosmopolitanism in the Peranakan world and Southeast Asia, examining the cultural milieu, influences, commerce and technology that played into the aesthetics that developed in the grave art of Bukit Brown.

Keywords: Cosmopolitanism, colonialism, Peranakan, Straits Chinese, Bukit Brown, grave art

Pages: 76-83 | First Published: 1 September 2016

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