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Articles

“Picking our Oysters” and “Swimming with our Whales” : How innovative tourism practices may engender sustainable development
   * Eva Duedahl & Arvind Singhal
Exploring strategic branding resources for small and medium-sized brand-oriented companies
   Rohana Mijan, * Shuhaida Md Noor & Mastura Jaafar
Framing of the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan in the U.S. press: An analysis of U.S. foreign policy interest
   * Abhijit Mazumdar & Catherine A. Luther
Using Giddens' structuration theory to examine the contesting participation of online mass media's journalists in Katadata.co.id framing
   * Dimas Jarot Bayu & Endah Triastuti
Effect of celebrity endorsers in advertising in Indonesia: A review of consumer-celebrity relations
   * Morissan
Malaysian female users’ purchase intentions of celebrity-endorsed products on Instagram: A parasocial interaction perspective
   * Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azzman Shariffadeen & Aini Maznina A. Manaf
Between the National and the Islamic: Representation of Jerusalem in the media coverage of HAMAS-affiliated Aqsa TV
   Ihab Awais, Sujoud Awais & * Abeer Z. Alhossary
Filmic education of borderland texts in Jogho and Bunohan
   * Roslina Abdul Latif & Badrul Redzuan Abu Hassan

“Picking our Oysters” and “Swimming with our Whales” : How innovative tourism practices may engender sustainable development

* Eva Duedahl & Arvind Singhal

Abstract:

In an unfolding scenario of environmental gloom and doom where humans have become the key disruptors and exploiters of nature, our article presents an optimistic and hopeful approach to how humans may interact with nature on nature’s premises—with reverence. To illustrate this communicative praxis, we carry out cross-case analyses of two real-life scenarios that we label “picking our oysters” and “swimming with our whales,” revealing how human beings interacting with others and nature through locally situated tourism interventions can spark cascading interactional effects into yet newer and expanding communities of caring for nature. When such happens, we contend that it represents the kind of sustainable development that the world badly needs, especially in the present perilous times. We contend that the insights emerging from our cross-case analyses have wide-ranging implications for both scholars and practitioners of tourism and communication—that is, collaborative local interactions, actions, and interventions can cascade into emergent and resilient sustainable development practices.

Keywords: tourism, innovation, sustainability, sustainable development, complex adaptive systems

Pages: 1-26 | First Published: 10 March 2020

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Exploring strategic branding resources for small and medium-sized brand-oriented companies

Rohana Mijan, * Shuhaida Md Noor & Mastura Jaafar

Abstract:

This study aims to identify strategic branding resources for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) considering their financial challenges in implementing branding programmes. This qualitative study relied on data from in-depth interviews with company representatives inclusive of owners/founders, chief executive officers and marketing managers of 10 brand-oriented SMEs in Malaysia. Guided by the Resource-Based-View (RBV) managerial framework, thematic analysis was utilised to reveal themes pertaining to strategic branding resources for each of the ten companies; the data was subsequently triangulated among the ten companies to identify the most prominent themes. The utilisation of inherent company resources strategically, based on the company’s uniqueness and capabilities, was found to be crucial for SMEs’ success in branding. Concurring with past findings, strategic branding resources for SMEs that emerged from the data include brand uniqueness, product differences, human resources, brand symbolism, corporate culture and internal communications. Interestingly, two new branding resources emerged, namely brand innovation and social capital. This study contributes towards creating awareness and understanding regarding the potential of inherent strategic brand resources among SMEs that may improve their brand development. Moreover, these findings elucidate an alternative pathway for the formation of branding strategies among SMEs.

Keywords: branding, strategic brand resources, brand orientation, small and medium-sized enterprises

Pages: 29-45 | First Published: 28 February 2020

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Framing of the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan in the U.S. press: An analysis of U.S. foreign policy interest

* Abhijit Mazumdar & Catherine A. Luther

Abstract:

This study examines the U.S. press coverage of the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan before and after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and explores if the main frames provided in the stories were in line with shifting U.S. foreign policy interests. This study analysed news stories from The New York Times and The Washington Post with the two identified time frames, using the Indexing theory. Indexing lays out that media in a country emphasises on the foreign policies of its own government in international reporting. The study also used framing as a theoretical construct as it sought to study news frames about the Kashmir dispute in the U.S. press. The study was conducted at two levels: story level and source level. A coding sheet was used to code 270 news stories from the two time frames. Findings indicate that there were no significant differences between the two time frames in framing the cause of dispute and its solutions. The stories gave a balanced account of the dispute at the story level. Significant differences, however, were found in source usage between the two time frames. Authors attributed the difference in source usage to the changing security situation in Kashmir with military officials being quoted more significantly during the pre-9/11 era due to Kashmir being secured by the Indian military. Similarly, non-governmental representatives were quoted more significantly in the news stories to introduce neutral voices about the conflict in the pre-9/11 era.

Keywords: India, United States, Kashmir, indexing, media

Pages: 47-61 | First Published: 28 February 2020

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Using Giddens' structuration theory to examine the contesting participation of online mass media's journalists in Katadata.co.id framing

* Dimas Jarot Bayu & Endah Triastuti

Abstract:

Accuracy is a common and serious problem in online mass media, particularly in today’s fast-paced news industry. By applying the arguments in structuration theory, this study examines agents within the structure of the news industry, such that they function as both the medium and outcome of agency formation, and how they intertwine with issues of public trust in online mass media. Using Katadata.co.id as an instrumental case study from April to July 2019, this study suggests that the emergence of data journalism potentially offers a solution to overcome the issue of accuracy within the new structure of online news media. Using Giddens’ structuration theory, this study critically analyses data journalism’s efficacy to enhance the accuracy of online news. The study concludes that although data journalism provides financial benefits for Katadata.co.id, the website did not demonstrate an ability to overcome the problem of inaccuracy, which is attributed to a lack of adequate data analysis training, support and equipment among its journalists. Rather, Katadata.co.id remains trapped in the typical structure of online mass media that sacrifices quality and prioritises news quantity and speed to increase advertising revenues. On that basis, the researchers recommend that Katadata.co.id improves its editorial structure to enhance the accuracy of its news. Further research is suggested to examine the application of data journalism by other news websites in Indonesia.

Keywords: data journalism, news accuracy, structuration, commercialism

Pages: 63-77 | First Published: 28 February 2020

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Effect of celebrity endorsers in advertising in Indonesia: A review of consumer-celebrity relations

* Morissan

Abstract:

Marketers use celebrities to influence consumer-purchasing decisions with the aim to increase sales and expand their product market share. This study intends to measure the influence of consumer demographic factors on their attitude towards supporting/remaining neutral/rejecting celebrities as endorsers. In particular, it examines seven celebrity attributes (trustworthiness, expertise, similarity, familiarity, likeability, appropriateness, and conformity) that have the most influence on purchasing decisions, as well as the role of consumer attitude in the relationship between celebrity brand-fit and purchasing decision. A sample of ten celebrity endorsers were selected based on a recall test conducted on 100 respondents. The ten celebrities are artists, mostly singers and film players. All celebrities are Indonesians except Black Pink from South Korea. Primary data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale distributed online to a sample consisting of 464 respondents, domiciled in Jakarta and its surrounding areas, selected with a convenience sampling method. The findings show that age and gender have a significant influence on consumer attitude towards supporting/ remaining neutral/rejecting celebrity endorsers while education and income do not have any significant influence. Three endorser attributes carry a significant influence on purchase intention with trust as the strongest followed by expertise and similarity. There was a significant effect of celebrity brand-fit on purchasing decisions that was moderated by attitudes towards endorsers.

Keywords: advertising, celebrity, consumer, endorser, Indonesia

Pages: 79-92 | First Published: 28 February 2020

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Malaysian female users’ purchase intentions of celebrity-endorsed products on Instagram: A parasocial interaction perspective

* Tengku Siti Aisha Tengku Mohd Azzman Shariffadeen & Aini Maznina A. Manaf

Abstract:

A media user’s imagined relationship with mediated characters and personalities can influence him/her in a variety of ways. Through celebrity-fan engagement on social media, fans can be influenced by their favourite celebrities in various ways, including wanting to practice a healthier lifestyle, considering cosmetic surgery or using certain brands. The introduction of contemporary new media, with easy access and heightened interactivity, has motivated scholars to re-examine how parasocial relationships may form online, and their effect on media users. However, little is known about how parasocial relationships influence online consumer behaviour. Accordingly, this study focuses on identifying the predictors of purchase intentions of celebrity-endorsed products among female Instagram users in Malaysia (N = 630). Using an online survey, they were asked to rate their social media engagement with a celebrity that they follow on Instagram as well as provide responses about the celebrity characteristics. Overall, results highlight the positive impact of parasocial interaction on the purchase intentions of celebrity-endorsed products. Specifically, findings suggest that parasocial interaction: (a) mediates the relationship between Instagram use and purchase intentions, and (b) partially mediates the relationship between attitude homophily and purchase intentions. The ramifications of these findings on parasocial interaction theory and the effect of celebrity endorsements on social media are also discussed.

Keywords: Attitude homophily, celebrity endorsements, Instagram use, parasocial interaction, purchase intentions

Pages: 93-109 | First Published: 10 March 2020

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Between the National and the Islamic: Representation of Jerusalem in the media coverage of HAMAS-affiliated Aqsa TV

Ihab Awais, Sujoud Awais & * Abeer Z. Alhossary

Abstract:

The issues of Jerusalem, the holy city, are of vital importance to the Palestinian media. However, Palestinian factions often attempt to cover the different matters of Jerusalem through their various media agencies and means. The coverage of Jerusalem issues is subject to the level of importance according to the agendas of these factions. One of the media outlets is Aqsa TV, which is associated with the HAMAS faction. The study aims to investigate the concept of Jerusalem presented via Aqsa TV’s coverage during 2018, which witnessed a number of intensive Palestinian-Israeli conflict struggles on the city. Also, the study aims to explore the degree of importance that the channel gives to issues concerning Al-Quds. As a qualitative research, it employed the content analysis method and the agenda setting theory to analyse the results. Data were collected from prime-time news broadcast in 2018, with a total of 24 broadcasts. The findings reveal that on one hand, the channel discourse prioritises matters related to the violent Palestinian-Israeli struggle that is taking place in the city while, on the other hand, ignores matters concerning the citizens of the city and their daily life problems. Another finding suggests that although the channel considers Jerusalem as the heart of the conflict, but in accordance with the agenda of HAMAS, the focus of the channel shifts to other fierce occurrences in the Gaza Strip Great Return March protests. The research recommends further studies to examine the coverage of different media outlets affiliated with other Palestinian factions to understand in-depth the agendas of these factions. In addition, the representation of Palestinian issues, such as refugees and the struggle with Israel, in both the Arabic language and English language to the local and international audience should be analysed and compared.

Pages: 111-124 | First Published: 29 April 2020

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Filmic education of borderland texts in Jogho and Bunohan

* Roslina Abdul Latif & Badrul Redzuan Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Our study proposes that a film can be cinematically persuasive in presenting a cultural argument and as such, the mass medium should be deployed to promote awareness towards appreciation and preservation of arts and cultural practices. It is concerned with exploring the creative and intellectual capability of a ‘regional’ film that engages with local tradition, practices and cultural identities in canvassing promotion of awareness and preservation of arts and cultural heritage with a special focus on the representation of Malay society and culture in the Kelantan-Pattani borderland as constructed in U-Wei Haji Saari’s Jogho (1997) and Dain Said’s Bunohan (2012). The study is informed by Linda Tuhiwai-Smith’s ‘decolonizing methodologies’ (1999) as a set of ideological practices in favour of the disenfranchised and mapped against both films. As such, the parameter of textual analysis for both texts is cinematic and discursive within naturally conflated contextual discussion of contemporary sociology, history and politics of arts and cultural practices of the borderland, undermined or otherwise. The findings of the mapping suggest that both narratives demonstrated their critical qualities as exemplary ‘regional films’ for purpose of promotion and education of borderland arts and cultural heritage. In conclusion, this study regards astute filmmaker as a public intellectual whose vision and direction are needed to help promote institutionalisation and advocacy via filmic education in the cinematic public sphere.

Pages: 125-139 | First Published: 29 April 2020

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